Steam Cycle Simulation and Plant Costing for Most Efficient and Cost Effective Configuration


Steam cycle in any Rankine Cycle based mostly generator is a vital design part, for any energy technology utility based mostly on the expertise. Change in configuration could have an effect on the Warmth Charge and effectivity of the plant. It’s a nice problem for engineers to establish one of the best configuration for reaching one of the best efficiencies and lowering operational prices of power and total price of the plant. Sadly, assessing the effectivity in any specific configuration is an iterative technique, and so the effectivity estimation in off design mode for any specific scenario similar to at half load. This, makes it very tough to match the totally different configurations. This doc is an effort to review the impact of modifications within the configuration on the effectivity Ie warmth price of the plant. Any industrial warmth steadiness software program can be utilized for the aim.

Supplies and Strategies:


Cycle for 800 MW plant at 700 dg C temperature and 300 kg / cm2 (a), strain have been recognized as the fundamental plant definition, for which the train has been performed. Different inputs and assumption will likely be given on the applicable place within the documentation.

Fundamental Configuration

Turbine Preparations: One single circulate HP, One double circulate IP and Two double circulate LP turbine Cylinders

Design Output: 800 MW

VWO output: 840 MW

Governing Sort: 40 – 100% load – Sliding Stress operation, 100% to VWO – overload valve

MS Temperature: 700 diploma C

MS Stress: 300 Kg / cm2a

First RH Temperature: 700 diploma C

Second RH Temperature: 700 diploma C

RH Circuit strain drop: eight%

Feed Water Temperature: 305 diploma C

No of HP heaters: three in all variations besides second,

Extraction Line Stress Drop: For HP heater three%, for LP heater and Deaerator 5%, For BFPT 12%

TTD of HP heater: zero.2 Deg C,

TTD of LP heater: 2.eight Deg C

DCA of heaters: four.eight Deg C

Sort of BFP: Turbine Pushed

BFP effectivity: 82%

BFPT effectivity: 83%

CEP eff: 81%

Cooling water temperature: 33 diploma C

Sort of condenser and association: Two condensers one with every LP turbine

Again pr. In first condenser: zero.079 kg / Cm2 (a)

Again pr. In second condenser: zero.02 kg / Cm2 (a)

Generator Eff: 98.92%

Indicative HP Turbine effectivity: 92.5%

Indicative IP Turbine effectivity: 93.5%

Indicative LP Turbine effectivity: 90.5%

Particular Configurations of various circumstances:

Case 1:

Extraction line strain drop:

For HP heater three%, for LP heater and Deaerator 5%, For BFPT 12%

Case 2:

No. of HP heaters: four (as an alternative of common case of three HP heaters

Case three:

Warmth enter in exterior heater to 50% of the condensate of LP heater 2

(A faucet off taken from outlet of LP heater-1 and after heating in exterior heater, sizzling condensate will be a part of the primary condensate at LP heater 2 outlet)

Case four:

Double Reheat and second Reheat Temperature: 700 deg C

Case 5:

De-super-heater of HPH-5 situated after HP heater no eight.

Instruments and Strategies:

There are a number of warmth steadiness software program obtainable out there, the present research has used "Easy Warmth Steadiness" for the aim of simulation of the totally different circumstances for 800 MW plant

Widespread Enter Knowledge:

A lot of the thermal equipment knowledge has been provided by the shopper, nonetheless another values ​​have assumed as follows for extra reasonable outcomes.

Turbine Gland leakages

They’re robotically calculated in off-design mode


Balancing leakage = four.2 tons / hr

First gland Excessive strain aspect = 2.732 tons / hr

Second Gland Excessive strain aspect = zero.543 t / hr

Third gland Excessive strain aspect = zero.035 t / hr

First gland Low strain aspect = zero.787 t / hr

Second Gland Low strain aspect = zero.056 t / hr

Third gland Low strain aspect = zero.056 t / hr


Gland1 LP (left) = zero.431 t / hr

Gland 2 (Left) = zero.055 t / hr

Gland1 LP (Proper) = zero.769 t / hr

Gland 2 (Proper) = zero.zero94 t / hr


Gland1 (Left) = zero.560 (coming into) t / hr

Gland2 (Left) = zero.110 t / hr

Gland1 (Proper) = zero.560 (coming into) t / hr

Gland2 (Proper) = zero.110 t / hr

Different Losses

Mechanical Losses = 1195 kw

Turbine Integral Losses = 300 kw

Exhaust Losses = 6 kcal / kg (That is robotically calculated in off-design mode)

Stress Loss in D / A degree management Valve = 5 kg / cm2 (That is robotically calculated in off-design mode)

Program has the choice of correcting dry effectivity based mostly on the dryness issue of steam in moist steam zones, nonetheless this feature has been switched off as Consumer has given the turbine efficiencies for use.

Extraction Line Pressures at Turbine finish:

Extraction Line strain values ​​had been optimized for max effectivity.

Utilizing the above values ​​and and the software program talked about above within the instruments and strategies, following outcomes had been discovered:

Prices of the plan and totally different elements had been discovered as beneath:

Configuration Warmth Charge Whole Value (INR) Value per MW (INR)

Variation 1 (Base case) 1700 6173.36 Cr * 7.717 Cr *

Case 2 1697.four 6180.85 Cr * 7.726 Cr *

Case three 1696.6 6179.36 Cr * 7.724 Cr *

Case four 1684.7 6482.07 Cr * eight.103 Cr *

Case 5 1697.eight 6169.94 Cr * 7.712 Cr *


The perfect effectivity amongst these circumstances have been discovered within the fourth case.ie with double reheat configuration. The development within the Double Reheat configuration as in comparison with the bottom case is zero.91% (wrt to base case). The development with respect to second base case ie Case three, the development in effectivity is zero.70% when half condensate has been heated out of the system.

However, the fee enhancement in Double reheat can be vital which 5% of the bottom case is. This evaluation may be very simplistic and it might not in a position to take reasonable selections. However this data together with different obtainable by means of the identical software program and from the expertise market can present the sufficient knowledge to take appropriate selections.

For instance, price of gas together with effectivity have a major influence on operational price of the plant, which can and truly is a significant component for taking selections for collection of expertise. Contemplating the upper prices of fuels, it’s wiser to enhance effectivity and save on working price as in comparison with save the preliminary capital prices.

This paper is simply to speak to who’re within the results of the applied sciences, efficiencies and the prices, particularly in reference to the Rankine cycle

* 1 Cr = 10 Million

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